The best 5 Naked used up to 4000 euros

After the article that has met with considerable success on the best-used sports bikes for 2000 euros, here is a Special ranking of the 5 best used Naked within 4000 euros. More here In this price range, you start to find beautiful, current, and all in all affordable motorcycles. The choice, however, was not easy at all and I also had to exclude some bikes that surely many of you would have placed in the standings, but forgive me, I tried to be as varied as possible. You will notice that these are all extremely different, valid, and more or less medium displacement bikes, with different characteristics, both in terms of technical solutions, engines, and style.

  • 1 – Mv Agusta Brutale 750/910 (2001/2007)

La Brutale The first place deserves it with full marks. Designed by Massimo Tamburini, It has Italian charm, muscular lines, a lot of styles, and first-class equipment. Attention to every detail, the finishes are refined in detail, everything gives the idea of ​​a Special, the exhaust cut into a slice of salami, the headlight with the logo, the engine casing, the rear brake pump, the starter lever, the mirrors, levers on the handlebars. Taking home an MV at a modest price is not a trivial matter. This Naked in fact costs about 15,000 euros and is now on sale in a price range ranging from 3,000 to 4,000 euros. Born from a rib of the F4, it inherited the chromium-molybdenum steel trellis frame with cast aluminum parts on which the aluminum single-sided swingarm works, and the engine, a 4 inline that in the 750 develops 127hp at 12.500g / Min, while the 910 reaches 136hp and 11.000giri (The second has the advantage of a more full-bodied and less empty delivery at the low end as well as being more recent). Unfortunately, the Cockpit, which has been transferred on an equal footing from the F4, is perhaps a bit disproportionate and suffers from barely sufficient readability, but its charm probably lies precisely in remembering the bike from which the Brutale derives.

The position on the saddle is really sporty, you are quite curled up with your legs and leaning forward with your torso. For both the 750 and the 910, the suspensions are equipped with a Marzocchi fork at the front with fully adjustable 50 mm stanchions and fully adjustable mono Sachs at the rear. The braking system is Nissin with six-piston calipers and two 320 mm discs at the front that guarantees excellent braking for both displacements. The tire sizes are 120/70 zr 17 at the front and 190/50 Zr17 at the rear-mounted on the characteristic star wheels also borrowed from the famous MV F4. This bike is a really nice take, the most valuable of the 5 proposals. The obvious defects of the MVs are the vibrations of the engine, particular care in maintenance, and poor coverage of official dealers in the area.

  • 2 – Aprilia Shiver 750 / SL 750 (2009-2011)

Another noteworthy item. In this price range, there is also the Aprilia Shiver, which in 2009 made its debut as a mid-engined Naked. It probably did not have the hoped-for success, not many were sold but the bike boasted some technical contents that were really not bad at the competitive price of about 9,000 euros when new.

The Shiver had the distinction of being the first Naked to mount the electronically controlled ” Ride By Wire ” throttle as standard, associated with a control unit equipped with three mappingsRain, for when grip is not optimal, touring for traveling looking for maximum driving comfort, and Sport when you want the engine more ready to push a little harder. Among the bikes that we have selected, the Shiver is the most technologically advanced and offers technical content on a par with today’s bike. It is powered by an excellent 750cc liquid-cooled 90-degree V-twin engine which delivers the power of95Hp at 9000rpm mounted on a composite lattice frame of aluminum tubes and platesThe swingarm is in double-sided aluminum with reinforcement truss with stiffness of reference for the category that has been particularly designed to withstand the asymmetrical stresses of the Sachs mono-shock, adjustable in precariousness and in the hydraulic return, positioned laterally to pass the exhausts that arrive behind undertail, making the rear part also the most beautiful part of the Shiver.

The forks are 43 mm with upside-down stems but unfortunately not adjustable (pity). The braking system, on the other hand, is not bad at all, embellished with standard aeronautical braided hoses and with two 320 mm Margherita discs bitten by Aprilia radial-mount calipers, behind a single 245 mm disc. You can also find the ABS version that adopts a Continental two-channel system that ensures maximum braking in all conditions. Tire sizes are 180/55 Zr17 at the rear and 120/70 Zr17 at the front. The riding position is comfortable, with the footpegs not too raised and the handlebars at the right angle, all making the Shiver aNaked not too extreme with which you can do a bit of everything. It is on the market roughly from 3000 to 4000 euros for the most recent versions with ABS

  • 3 – Ducati Monster 696 / 696+ (2008-2013)

The Ducati Monster is a timeless icon. After the success of the first version in the 90s (the one with the bow on the swingarm) and a slight restyling that took place around 2002 which involved some aesthetic details in addition to the frame and various improvements on electrical wiring and engine, Ducati after 15 years decided to a total renovation in 2008. The engine is the usual air-cooled 90-degree V- twin, but compared to the forerunners Entry Level versions, the displacement has grown to 696cc.

Aesthetically pleasing and harmonious, the tank remains as the only distinctive feature, with the usual ox hump pattern with the two large lateral flares, now however covered by two plastic half-shells that further facilitate any customization to which the monster is always been submitted by past buyers. The frame is a much shorter and completely revised chrome-moly trellis compared to previous models that join an aluminum seat post. The saddle is very low from the ground, 770mm, and offers even the lowest ones a good footing on the asphalt. the driving position is less curled up and more comfortable, but not touristic while remaining faithful to the concept of initial sportiness that the Monster series has always supported. The engine is thermally revised and improved, modernized by a sophisticated injection system that uses two Lambda probes. All with the aim of improving delivery and offering 80hp at 9,000 pm . Enough power to have fun and also finally to get out of any hindrance, especially for two. The clutch is APTC in an oil bath which considerably reduces the effort on the lever and is a slipper. The dry weight is only 161 kg which also makes the 696 extremely agile and fun. The suspension compartment is equipped with Showa 43 mm upside-down fork (not adjustable) and mono Sachs at the rear with adjustable preload and hydraulic rebound. The braking system is Brembo with two 320 mm discs at the front and 4-piston radial calipers and at the rear a 245 mm disc with two-piston caliper.

The Kockpit is digital and ready for the Ducati Data Analyzer, with on-board computer characteristics, it has many small lights and warnings including Overspeed signal and lap times, however, it is a bit small and difficult to read especially in bright light. The tire sizes are 160/60 zr 17 at the rear and 120/60 Zr17 at the front, unfortunately no longer easily available especially on the latest existing tire models (not all of them produce these measures anymore). The plus version, as the only difference, is equipped with a matching rear seat cover and a small finishing fairing, accessories, often bought over time even by owners of the normal 696, so don’t be fooled by that +. The Monster 696 is found relatively easily in a price range ranging from 3500 to 4000 euros.

  • 4 – Triumph Street triple 675 / 675R 2007/2011

This bike enters by right among the 5 best used Naked within 4000 euros. It has all the features that make it attractive to a varied audience. With clear aesthetic references reminiscent of the speed ​​triple (such as the large round headlights) it combines sportiness with the typical Triumph style. It is also a unique bike of its kind thanks to the 3-cylinder in-line engine that ensures low torque typical of twin-cylinder engines but also the extension of an in-line 4 making everyone agree. Thanks to a low weight of only 167 kg it is a very agile and fun bike in the curves. In short, a real Streetfighter.

The street triple 675 derives from the Supersport Daytona 675 from which it inherits the aluminum frame and swingarm, as well as the tank and the engine suitably reduced from 120hp to 107hp at 11,700rpm. Noteworthy is the well-kept mixed analog / digital Kockpit that changes only in the graphics.

 Compared to the Daytona, it loses the adjustable forks and radial calipers in favor of the floating 4-piston Nissin discs that work on 308 mm discs but which still ensure excellent braking. The R version is a bit more refined and cost 1000euro more, it differs from the standard because it regains the radial-mount calipers, forks (like the 41mm standard), and multi-adjustable mono (all Kayaba) as well as a more refined, two-tone saddle with visible stitching. The tire sizes are for both versions from 120/70 Zr17 at the front and 180/55 Zr17 at the rear. The driving position is quite comfortable with a ground clearance of 800mmand the footrests not too raised and set back. This Naked is in 4th place in this ranking but only because it is a particular Naked, you may like it or not because of its uniqueness and a particular style but it is certainly equipped with an excellent chassis and a beautiful engine, a bike that ensures great fun for those who drive it. It is located in a price range ranging from 3500 to 4000 euros. Clearly, in optimal conditions, it is better to choose the R.

  • 5 – Honda Cb600 f Hornet 600 (2007-2010)

The Honda Hornet has always been considered one of the first mid-displacement Streetfighters. The concept of a Naked with a high-performance engine can be said to have been born with her. In fact, it immediately met with considerable success also thanks to a low selling price. The first versions were not easy to drive and to tell the truth maybe even a little unpredictable … single beam steel frame, economic suspensions, distribution of the just adequate, in short, it was a bike built to limit costs, with a powerful engine and a chassis that was not exactly perfect.

It was in 2007, however, that it was considerably improved, what was perhaps the last Hornet to have had some success in sales was born as well as being perfect if not distorted in many respects while remaining accessible in price, in fact, it cost only about 7,500 euros. The line has been profoundly changed, the rear part lowered considerably and the exhaust (a distinctive feature of the Hornet) shortened and placed below, at the bottom. The most important work was done on the centralization of the masses thanks to new design systems, finally balancing the bike in the best possible way. The only thing that remains almost the same as the 2006 model is the 41 mm upside-down forks still not adjustable.but to which the springs have been improved. The mono-shock absorber instead is signed showa adjustable only in the precarious spring. The engine is now that of the CBR 600rr softened in delivery whose maximum power has been lowered to 102hp at 12,000 rpm. The frame (always single beam) is now in aluminum as well as the swingarm, always without progressive articulation, which however has also been lengthened to improve traction and driveability.

The wheels are both 17 “, with 120/70 tires at the front and  180/55  at the rear. The braking system consists of two 296 mm front discs with two-piston calipers and one  240 mm rear discs, machined by a single-piston caliper. On the second hand, it is better to find the version with ABS , sold as an option but extremely useful. The anti-lock braking system travels hand in hand with CBS integral braking , which also activates a third central front caliper piston (other than the standard one) when the rear brake pedal is operated. The position in the saddle is excellent and suitable for a 360° use of the bike thanks to a well-chosen triangulation of the saddle, handlebars and footrests. Even the passenger travels quite comfortable thanks to a comfortable saddle without too much difference in height equipped with a standard handle and relatively low footrests. The Hornet is an excellent buy for those who want a bike without too much effort, as reliable as only a Honda can be and suitable for almost any use with the only limit common to all the Naked which is the Aerodynamic protection. Of the 5 proposals it is the most comfortable together with the Shiver. It is between 3000 and 4000 euros.

What Forex trading strategy should you use?

A possible Forex trading strategy is to execute your trades based on economic fundamentals and/or technical factors. These factors typically include charts, mathematical analyses, support and resistance levels, and trend lines.

Forex fundamentalists anticipate price movements by analyzing and interpreting a wide variety of economic information, including government-issued changes, news, rumors, and reports. Unexpected events often cause the most significant price movements. For example, a central bank raising domestic interest rates, the outcome of a political election, or even an act of war. Normally the expectation of the news event drives the market more than the event itself.

From a purely technical perspective, there are many approaches to identifying buy/sell levels in the Forex market. Unfortunately a great number of them are unreliable. Those approaches include methodologies that utilize Fibonacci numbers and ratios, Gann concepts, moving averages, bollinger band scalping strategy, and trend lines. These strategies assume that the market will repeat past behavior and experience. Additionally they oftne use fixed intervals for inputs, which creates yet another dilemma.

The old maxim: “A study of the past does not tell you anything about the future.”

Watching price movement without having a strategy to guide you will leave you directionless. You should watch Forex prices in relation to points-of-reference (a pivot point in combination with buy/sell levels). It is perhaps the only way of knowing whether the market is moving closer to, or further away, from a particular point. It also helps you develop a feel for the market, once you put your position on. Your entry price will take on a whole new meaning, as you track it in relation to these points-of-reference.

When watching price action, you will want to know three things: in what direction, how far, and how fast. To do this measurement, you will need only observe current price in relation to what we call the pivot point.

A great Forex trading system for you to consider is offered by Andreas Kirchberger. His software system generates all the buy/sell signals for you automatically. All you have to do is pull the trigger, and relax. The best part (in my opinion) is that there is only one small one time fee and you are not tied to any complex trading patterns or charts. There are some nice video’s too that you can watch on the site above to get you started.

The first hemp cafe opened in Israel

On September 19, the first hemp cafe was opened in the Israeli city of Be’er Sheva. Visitors to the institution can smoke marijuana in a designated place. Article by

Coffeeshop will not trade cannabis

One of the founders of the company, Amit Moreno, said that the cafe will not sell hemp. The coffee shop rents smoking accessories and creates a pleasant atmosphere. Within the walls of the institution, marijuana was allowed to smoke only to people registered in the program of access to medical cannabis.

In the future, the owners of the institution plan to open coffee shops in other cities and conduct educational activities on the medicinal properties of hemp. Moreno believes that society should change its attitude towards the plant since cannabinoids have therapeutic potential. The company works on a voluntary basis and therefore offers everyone to donate money for the development of the project. According to Amit, the opening of hemp cafes is an important step towards the legalization of cannabis.

Israeli hemp enterprises actively attract foreign capital

A symposium of investors in the Israeli cannabis industry was held in New York on September 12. The conference was attended by representatives of American venture and investment funds, as well as institutional investors. Employees of Israeli hemp companies talked about their projects, legislation and the risks associated with investing in the industry.

The symposium was organized by iCAN, which provides support for innovative hemp startups. Saul Kaye, iCAN Director, spoke about the objectives of the conference: “Israel seeks financing from the largest hemp enterprises and firms operating in the emerging markets of South America, Africa, and Asia. Famous Israeli technologies are gaining international recognition, so the American financial community should not be left out from progress. ”

Everyone must have access to medical cannabis.

ICAN is creating a global hemp ecosystem for every patient to benefit from cannabis products. The company compiles a list of promising enterprises from around the world and contributes to their development, creating alliances. ICAN services are used by 4,000 companies from 40 countries. Saul Kaye claims that Israel has a leading position in the field of medical hemp, as more research is being conducted in the country than in any other state. According to him, instead of legalizing the Israelis used the approach of “medicalization” of hemp.

U.S. cannabinoid deaths

A mysterious respiratory disease that has hit hundreds of vapers has affected the American hemp market. In the United States, sales of cannabinoid fluids for electronic cigarettes are declining.

Consumers switch from vape to marijuana and cannabinoid food

On September 19, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released a report on an epidemic among vapers. The agency recorded 530 cases of the disease and eight deaths from drinking fluids released under 150 different brands. FDA researchers investigated nicotine and THC products, but have not yet figured out the cause of respiratory illness.

Cannabis One Director Jeff Masio has recorded a negative trend in the hemp vape market. However, enterprise customers began to buy marijuana and cannabinoid foods more often. Before the onset of the crisis, liquids accounted for 23.8% of the total trade in hemp products. By September 9, this figure decreased by 3.2-4.6% (depending on the particular state). Revenue from the sale of cartridges and vape oil fell by almost a quarter.

Nevertheless, Cannabis One management is not worried about the financial position of the company. According to economists, the total sales will not change, because people will switch to another product. But in the period from September 6 to 23, the share price of the enterprise decreased by 22% and continues to fall.

The cause of the epidemic could be counterfeit products

Max Simon, the founder of the hemp education portal Green Flower Media, believes the yellow press may hinder the development of the cannabis industry in the United States. According to him, some publications disseminate false information in the pursuit of sensation. This causes panic among people. Simon said consumers are afraid of electronic cigarettes and do not want to buy liquid. Green Pearl Organics CEO Daniel Buelna has blamed counterfeit manufacturers for the epidemic. In his opinion, the cause of the disease was supplements used by illegal dealers.

Scientists have suggested that respiratory illness was caused by vitamin E, which was found in several samples. According to doctors, inhaling the vitamin can lead to lipoid pneumonia – a rare disease that occurs when fat molecules get into the lungs. Symptoms of this ailment include chest pain, coughing and shortness of breath.

British experts offer to issue medical hemp for free

A group of British experts, consisting of several hundred professors, doctors, and politicians, suggested that the government begin to issue medical hemp for free.

The current cannabis distribution system is ineffective

On November 1, the British authorities legalized medical hemp, however, experts believe that the time has come to amend the law. The current cannabinoid turnover control system does not cope with its task, as many people in need have no access to cannabis-based drugs. As a result of this, patients have to take traditional drugs that cause serious side effects and can lead to addiction. In particular, we are talking about opioid painkillers.

In a letter addressed to Health Secretary Matthew Hancock, experts said: “Pharmacists and doctors did not recognize the legal status of medical cannabis. This harmed the health of patients and complicated the work of social workers. Recognizing the therapeutic potential of cannabis could prevent several deaths from diseases such as epilepsy ”

According to the British Ministry of Health, 25% of the country’s adult population takes powerful anesthetics, sleeping pills, and antidepressants. A number of doctors and researchers have argued that cannabinoids treat depression, pain, and insomnia better than conventional drugs. Therefore, they urge Hancock to simplify the process of issuing prescriptions for medical cannabis and relax the rules governing the import of hemp products.

UK residents cannot afford hemp therapy

The cost of a monthly course of hemp preparations reaches 4,000 pounds. According to the current legislation, citizens have the right to receive medicines free of charge if they have a prescription issued by a representative of the Ministry of Health. However, doctors working in government clinics are reluctant to write prescriptions, so patients have to get them in private facilities.

To solve this problem, activists advise creating an educational program on medical hemp for healthcare workers. After receiving information about the medicinal properties of the plant, doctors will no longer be afraid to prescribe cannabinoids. Nevertheless, employees of the National Institute of Health (NICE) do not agree with the opinion of supporters of the use of cannabis in medicine. They note an insufficient amount of scientific knowledge about the therapeutic potential of the plant. It is worth noting that NICE is taking steps to bridge the gaps in cannabis research. In November, Imperial College London, with the support of the National Institute, will begin conducting independent clinical trials of cannabinoids, in which 20,000 patients will participate.

The British put up a house for sale to pay for the treatment of her daughter

Elaine Levy decided to sell the house to pay for hemp oil, which her daughter Fallon takes for epilepsy. According to Elaine, for 15 months she spent about 30,000 pounds on drugs. Now the family has run out of savings, and they have nothing to buy oil for. Levy notes that medical cannabis has had a beneficial effect on her daughter’s health. After Fallon switched from sedatives to full-spectrum oil, she was able to move independently, and her IQ increased. Elaine calls the cannabis effect phenomenal.

On September 19, nine families billed the Ministry of Health in the amount of 231,000 pounds. They spent this money on the purchase of hemp products and are confident that the government should reimburse the costs. The Ministry of Health has not yet issued a single full-spectrum prescription for hemp oil, citing the fact that the effectiveness of cannabinoids in the treatment of epilepsy has not been proven.

US banks allowed to provide cannabis industry services

On September 25, the US House of Representatives passed the Safe and Fair Banking Regulation Act. The regulation provides legal protection to financial institutions that collaborate with the cannabis industry.

The law aims to increase public safety

321 members of the House voted for the initiative, 103 parliamentarians opposed it. The representative of the Republican Party, Ed Perlmutter commented on the decision of lawmakers: “The Americans talked and are talking about the need to amend the current rules. The fact is that we can not put the genie back in the bottle. The ban is time to withdraw. This regulation is designed to remove cash from circulation hemp enterprises, which will increase public safety. ”

Despite the fact that hemp is banned at the federal level, 33 states have legalized medical or recreational cannabis, and products with CBD and low THC content are allowed in 14 regions. Thus, only three states lack a legal framework governing cannabinoid trafficking in the legal market. With the easing of restrictions in the United States, there is a rapid development of the cannabis industry. Now the annual turnover of hemp enterprises is estimated at 52 billion dollars, while the business does not have access to banking services.

Financial institutions refuse to cooperate with the cannabis industry in order to avoid violating the law on combating money laundering. Therefore, hemp enterprises have to work with cash. The costs of This increase poses a threat to the safety of employees and problems with logistics.

Banks protect against federal sanctions

The regulation prohibits federal institutions from punishing credit and banking organizations that do not violate state law when providing services to help companies. Enterprises operating in the cannabis industry have gained the right to carry out any legal transactions in the region. The removal of restrictions was lobbied by Democrats and large financial organizations, for example, the Association of American Bankers, the Community of Independent Bankers of America and the National Association of Credit Unions.

Liberal lawmakers and supporters of criminal justice reform have called on the authorities to take measures to reduce the imbalance between federal and regional laws. In particular, they propose to mitigate the punishment for crimes related to hemp trafficking. House Finance Representative Maxine Waters is confident Congress has long had to pay attention to the unfair criminalization of cannabis use. In her opinion, the banking services document is an important element in a series of regulations that reform hemp legislation.

Unknown people scatter cannabinoid cookies in English parks

Two cases of cookie poisoning with cannabinoids scattered by unidentified people in parks occurred in England this week. The police have not yet been able to identify the persons involved in these incidents.

Dog Max was hospitalized due to cannabis poisoning

A resident of Merseyside County Sarah Kenny was walking her dog Max in a park near the house. According to her, the dog walked without a collar and ran through the bushes, chasing hares. When the woman brought Max home, he quickly fell asleep. A few hours later, a roommate woke Sarah and said that something had happened to the animal. The dog staggered and could not rise on its paws. After some time, the dog began vomiting. The hostess took Max to a veterinary clinic, where it was established that the dog had consumed a product with cannabinoids. Judging by the vomit, it was a chocolate chip cookie. Doctors gave the four-legged patient medication and prescribed it the next day.

Kenny believes that everything could have ended much worse if she had not responded to the dog’s malaise in a timely manner. In an interview, she said: “Max’s organs could have failed, and he would have died if we hadn’t gone to the vet. A child could have been in a place of the dog.”

Billy Spaniel begins to have seizures after cannabinoid intoxication

Pet Sarah Eccles Spaniel Billy poisoned with cannabis in a park located in Lancashire. Eccles reported that Billy ate a piece of chocolate chip cookie that was lying in the grass. She took one cookie with her and subsequently sent it for examination, as a result of which it turned out that the product contained THC. Two hours after the walk, the dog began to shake, she staggered, and blood vessels in her eyes burst. After the call, vet Sarah drove Billy to the hospital. Doctors introduced an animal to the animal to induce vomiting and placed a dropper on it. The dog spent the night in the clinic and returned home in the morning.

Eccles advised all dog breeders to take extra precautions and seek medical attention if their pet is unwell. According to the veterinarian, Billy was admitted to the hospital four hours after using cannabinoids, so the doctors managed to save his life.

Dogs may die from an overdose of THC

An employee of the University of Alberta, Connie Farnhagen, said that dogs have a very large number of cannabinoid receptors in their bodies, so animals are sensitive to THC. In her opinion, the average dose of a substance to humans is lethal to a dog. Veterinarian Sian Smith said that drugs that cause vomiting should be used to treat poisoning. If at least two hours have passed since the use of THC, then it is necessary to administer a glucose solution or a plasma replacement solution (in case of acute intoxication) through a dropper.

Bisexual women use hemp almost seven times more often than heterosexuals

Employees at Columbia University conducted a study on the volume of consumption of medical hemp among women with different sexual orientations. Experts have found that lesbians and bisexual women smoke marijuana more often than heterosexuals.

10% of bisexual women use cannabis every day

Scientists analyzed data from opinion polls in which 126,463 people took part. The specialists managed to find out the following:

  1. medical hemp is used by 40% of bisexual women, 26% of lesbians and 10% of heterosexuals;
  2. 10% of bisexual women smoke marijuana for medicinal purposes every day, among lesbians this indicator is 6%, only 1.5% of heterosexuals are treated with hemp daily.

Why are women with gay sex more likely to use hemp?

The authors of the study believe that bisexuals and lesbians take cannabinoids to treat stress caused by the fact that they belong to sexual minorities. Morgan Filbin, an employee at Columbia University, said bisexual women are much more likely to abuse cannabis than heterosexual women. According to him, the size and frequency of smoking marijuana are influenced by the policy of discrimination against people with gay orientation.

A similar trend is observed among gays and bisexuals.

Specialists also studied the responses of male polls and came to the following conclusions:

  1. 33% of gays and bisexuals use medical cannabis, among heterosexuals this figure is 20%;
  2. 9% of bisexuals, 7% of gays and 4% of heterosexuals reported daily smoking marijuana for therapeutic purposes.

Sexual orientation affects human health

British scientists from the University of East Anglia argue that sexual orientation should be the “social determinant of human health.” Joanna Semlen explained the statement of experts: “We know that representatives of sexual minorities are much more likely to experience psychosocial stress, which affects their mental health and behavior. For example, they start smoking and drinking alcohol. Several factors cause stress: homophobia, heterosexism, negative experiences, resulting from interactions with heterosexual people. ”

According to Semen, health organizations should take into account the sexual orientation of people when developing educational or treatment programs, and the government is obliged to take this factor into account when considering bills that regulate cannabis circulation. She noted that the item on sexual orientation appeared in opinion polls only in 2008, so scientists before could not determine how belonging to minorities affects health.

The program of the Moscow hemp festival in September

The Botanical Garden of Moscow State University “Pharmaceutical Garden” hosts the annual festival of flowers and crops. From September 7 to October 13, a hemp exhibition is open. Our editors have prepared a list of events planned for September.

Program for September 22

From 11:00 to 12:00, HempBang will hold a presentation on “Cannabis Super Foods”. Visitors will be able to taste the brand’s products – four types of HempBang bars! with different tastes and compositions. The company positions its product as a valuable supplement to the daily diet. The bars contain vitamins, trace elements, protein and Omega-3, and Omega-6 acids. On September 19, employees of the enterprise will take part in the Biohacking Conference Moscow 2019, where they will give recommendations on optimizing diet and physical activity.

From 14:00 to 15:00 there will be a lecture on the topic “History and Modernity: the rope in human life.”

From 15:00 to 17:00 Kruglikov will give a lecture “The whole truth about hemp.”

Program for September 29

From 15:00 to 16:30, Deputy Director of Feel Right, Vasilyeva, will give a lecture entitled “Hemp bed”.

From 5 p.m. to 7 p.m., the teacher of the International School of Design Alex Balashov will report on the methods of using cannabis in design.

Past Hemp Festival Events

On September 15, the exhibition hosted the presentation and tasting of hemp oil and kernel. Candidate of Biological Sciences Timiryazeva treated visitors with baguettes and snacks from hemp flour. She spoke about foods that can be made from cannabis and the benefits of plant-based proteins.

Agronomist Belopukhova held a presentation entitled “Hemp in Fine Arts and Music”, dedicated to the distinctive properties of hemp fiber and the importance of cannabis for art. In particular, they talked about the role of hemp in the development of subcultures in the 20th century and about the ways of depicting plants in art objects. The exhibitors were shown homespun hemp cloth, which was made in the Lipetsk region at the beginning of the last century.

Candidate of Agricultural Sciences Sergey Grigoryev gave a lecture “Hemp as a source of medicines and functional ingredients in nutrition.” He spoke about the biochemical composition of cannabis seeds, the synthesis of terpenes and cannabinoids, as well as the effect of substances contained in the plant on the human body.

The main exhibit of the exhibition – three-meter hemp grown in Mordovia deserves special attention. The festival schedule for October has not yet been published. The exhibition can be visited every day from 10:00 to 20:00. However, lectures, presentations, and tastings are held only on Sundays.

How does CBD block the side effects of THC?

Researchers at the Canadian University of Western Ontario have been able to find out how cannabidiol eliminates the negative effects of tetrahydrocannabinol. According to scientists, CBD is able to neutralize a number of side effects of THC.

CBD inhibits the effects of THC

University staff conducted tests on mice, during which it was found that THC :

  • increases the frequency of pulses and the speed of signal transmission in dopamine neurons located in the central region of the tire (part of the midbrain);
  • reduces the frequency of gamma-aminobutyric acid (nootropic drug);
  • enhances gamma and epsilon vibrations in the ventral region of the tire.

Because of this, negative consequences arise in the form of paranoia, anxiety, and dependence. CBD suppresses the pERK1-2 signaling pathway, which leads to the neutralization of affective disorders caused by the use of THC. Thus, CBD blocks the psychotic and psychotropic side effects of THC.

As a result of the experiments, the researchers came to the conclusion that cannabis strains with a high concentration of THC and a low content of CBD carry an increased risk to human mental health. The reception of THC causes cognitive and affective abnormalities in the hippocampus, and CBD fights these changes at the molecular level.

Cannabidiol Helps Treat Cannabis Addiction

Research Project Manager Roger Hudson argues that CBD completely eliminates signs of rodent anxiety and addictive behavior. Therefore, the cannabinoid can be used to treat cannabis dependence. In the future, a group of scientists plans to synthesize THC, which has less pronounced side effects and also develop methods to increase the efficiency of using CBD as a means to neutralize the consequences of using THC.

Professor Stephen Laviolett advises marijuana smokers to switch to hemp varieties with a higher CBD content at the first sign of side effects (paranoia, anxiety). According to him, people who have a negative reaction to cannabis should limit their intake of THC.

CBD Security

Side effects of CBD include:

  • dry mouth
  • low pressure;
  • drowsiness;
  • dizziness;
  • liver damage (rare).

According to the American company WebMD, the degree of safety of cannabidiol for humans depends on the dosage and duration of use. For example, it is considered safe to take daily up to 300 mg of CBD for six months. If the dose is 1200-1500 mg, then the safe period is reduced to four weeks.

To calculate the optimal dose of CBD, you can take as a basis the instructions for use of the Epidiolex preparation, which indicates that the average dosage is 10 mg/kg. Given that the concentration of cannabinoid in the spray reaches 1:10, then CBD should be taken at the rate of 1 mg/kg.

Hydrocyanic acid found in hemp vape cartridges

Journalists of the NBC News publication conducted their own investigation to establish the probable cause of the viper disease, which, according to the American CDC, claimed the lives of 13 people, more than 800 US residents were hospitalized.

Hazardous impurities found only in samples of counterfeit products

NBC News correspondents bought 18 cartridges with THC and handed them over to CannaSafe for examination. Lab technicians did not find pesticides or heavy metals in three products purchased from legal stores. However, in 13 out of 15 samples purchased on the black market, they found vitamin E (used as a solvent) and the pesticide myclobutanil, which when heated turns into hydrocyanic acid. This substance causes tissue-type oxygen starvation, which leads to a violation of the central nervous system, up to a complete stop of breathing.

David Downs, head of Leafly’s online portal, believes the Chinese are doing the poisonous vaping. In an interview, he said: “Counterfeit products are made in China. They take empty cartridges, fill them with liquids with THC or nicotine, add flavors and thickeners and then ship the finished products to the United States.”

Authorities begin to ban electronic cigarettes

Scientists have not yet been able to establish the exact cause of the viper disease, however, several state governments have already taken preventive measures to prevent new casualties among the population. In Michigan and New York, a temporary restriction was placed on the sale of vapors with flavors; in Massachusetts, it was forbidden for four months to sell any liquids and cartridges for electronic cigarettes. Indian authorities have introduced a permanent ban on the production, sale, and import of vape liquids.

The Canadian Ministry of Health has asked vapers to seek medical attention immediately for the first symptoms of respiratory illness. Doctors were ordered to ask patients suffering from chest pain, shortness of breath and hyperventilation about whether they used cartridges or liquids for electronic cigarettes.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Commissioner Ned Sharpless called on Congress to take additional steps to combat vaper disease. According to him, in the near future, the agency will publish a decree according to which all companies will have to withdraw products from circulation and not put them on the market until the FDA gives the go-ahead.

In Russia, there has not yet been a single case of pulmonary disease associated with soaring. However, the Ministry of Health plans to organize studies on the negative effects of using a vape.

Leafly has developed a visual hemp labeling system

Leafly has developed a cannabis visualization label called the Leafly Cannabis Guide. The platform uses laboratory research data, user reviews, and generative design to simplify the process of finding the right hemp variety.

Features hemp guide from Leafly

The chemical composition of hemp is presented in the form of a scheme, which includes circles and rhombs of various shapes and sizes. The circle indicates CBD, and the rhombus indicates THC, with the diameter or length of the figure reflecting the concentration of cannabinoids. Each color represents one of eight terpenes that interact with THC and CBD and affect the effect of smoking marijuana. As a result, the system generates different patterns for cannabis strains that allow you to visually evaluate the characteristics of the plant.

Based on user reviews, the guide compiles a list of effects in three categories:

  1. Feel;
  2. drug exposure;
  3. negative consequences.

As an example, we propose to consider the Gelato strain. Most people reported that this cannabis variety relaxes and gives euphoria (sensations), helps to cope with stress, depression, and anxiety (drug effects), and also causes dry mouth and dizziness (negative effects).

On the cannabis variety description page, you can find consumer reviews and write your own, find out information about similar strains, see photos of marijuana and a plant’s genetic map. Hemp guide is available in the mobile application and on the Leafly web portal.

Leafly System Simplicity and Functionality

Leafly director Tim Leslie spoke about the goals of the company’s project: “Hemp has a unique physiological effect on each of us. Therefore, we need a comprehensive, but intuitive way to describe the characteristics of the plant. Indica, sativa, and hybrid are the starting points for understanding cannabis, however, this form the categorization doesn’t reflect the full range of cannabis substances. The Leafly team of scientists and designers translated the chemical information into a visual language to help people find the right cannabis strain. ”

The Leafly Cannabis Hyde was developed in collaboration with laboratory staff who provided information on the content of substances in the plant. Leafly experts worked with laboratory assistants from the American companies Confidence Analytics, SC Labs, CannTest, chemistry, and others. Therefore, the authors of the project guarantee the accuracy of this information. Leafly Lead Researcher Nick Jikoms said his firm has managed to create the most understandable and effective way to study cannabis strain. In his opinion, the development will be appreciated by consumers, businesses, doctors, and scientists.

In Solnechnogorsk will begin to grow and process hemp

The administration of the city of Solnechnogorsk near Moscow approved a project for the cultivation and processing of technical hemp, developed by Mordovian Penkozavod LLC. According to experts, the Solnechnogorsk complex will become one of the largest in Russia.

Cannabis is sown by 2021

The project was called “Revival of technical hemp breeding.” Now officials, together with the Association of Russian Hemp Producers and Mordovian Hemp Plant LLC, are looking for land to grow hemp. Specialists examine municipal and private territories. The project will be implemented in three stages:

  1. cultivation of a plant for seed and hemp straw;
  2. primary processing of cannabis for the production of bonfires and fibers;
  3. advanced processing of hemp for the production of raw materials used in the production of industrial goods (biodegradable utensils, biocomposites, cotton wool, cellulose, threads), cosmetics and food products (oil, flour, nutritious bars, protein).

The total investment will amount to 8.6 billion rubles, 600 jobs will be created. Hemp is planned to be sown on an area of ​​5,000 hectares by 2021. In the second stage, a cannabis processing plant will be built. Finished products will be delivered to retail stores, and fiber – to textile enterprises located in China, Ivanovo, Vologda, and Kostroma regions.

Hemp sown area will double by 2025

In September, the Ministry of Agriculture published a report “On the prospects for the development of hemp breeding in the Russian Federation.” The document states that in 2019 cannabis was sown on an area of ​​10,200 hectares. The agency predicts that this figure will increase to 20,000 hectares by 2025. It is worth noting that in 2010 hemp was grown on 870 hectares, so the volume of cultivation of the plant will grow 23 times in 15 years.

This year, hemp was not cultivated in the Moscow Region, so the Mordovian hemp plant will be the first company to start planting in the region. The presentation of the Ministry of Agriculture lists three hemp processing plants that will be put into operation by 2022 (in the Nizhny Novgorod, Kursk and Penza regions). The capacity of enterprises will reach 9,000 tons per year.

Russia lags far behind the US in the cannabis industry

This year, American farmers received a license to cultivate technical hemp on an area of ​​206,390 hectares. The actual planted area was 93,000 hectares (almost nine times more than in Russia). A permit for the processing of cannabis was issued to 2,880 enterprises. In the United States, hemp cultivation volumes increased by 455% over the year, in addition, if all registered farmland planted cannabis, the sown area will increase 2.2 times compared to the current rate.

Malta exports 1 billion euro medical hemp

The Prime Minister of Malta, Joseph Muscat, said during a visit to the United States that Maltese companies plan to produce and export hemp medical products worth € 1 billion over the next three years.

Malta Cannabis Industry Development

In an interview with TVM, Muscat said: “Malta will begin exporting medical hemp in the first quarter of 2020. According to experts, the volume of product deliveries abroad will exceed 1 billion euros in the first three years of operation. Hemp enterprises will create 900 jobs, in addition, we can attract new companies to the market. Foreign investors show an increased interest in innovation. In Canada, this is medical cannabis, and in the USA, blockchain. ”

The state-owned enterprise Malta Enterprise, which supports local businesses, has sent 20 commercial firms a letter of intent to invest in the production and export of medical cannabis. According to Muscat, the government will be able to attract foreign capital, so in the future, the number of hemp companies that received investments will increase.

Legal Status of Cannabis in Malta

In 2015, the country’s authorities decriminalized possession of marijuana weighing up to 3.5 grams. Citizens who have committed this offense for the first time are punished with a fine of 50 to 100 euros. Cases of repeat offenders are examined by the Rehabilitation Council for Criminals Arrested under Narcotic Articles. Most often, people are sent for compulsory treatment.

In March 2018, the President of Malta, Marie-Louise Coleiro Preca, signed a law on the legalization of medical hemp. Earlier (in 2015), the government authorized the use of the Sativex oral spray, which contains THC and CBD, for medicinal purposes. However, patients who want a cannabis prescription have two problems.

Firstly, the normative act does not establish a list of diseases that give the right to acquire hemp. Therefore, doctors refuse to give prescriptions for cannabinoids to many patients. The second hurdle is the high cost of cannabis-based medicines. Maltese have to pay 70 euros for examining the application, 20 euros for receiving a prescription, 240 euros for a 15-day course of treatment and then renew the prescription for 70 euros. In case the patient smokes 1 gram of marijuana per day, the cost of therapy with all the additional costs is about 415 euros per month.

In addition, officials have limited the number of people who may have access to legal hemp. Recipes are not given to people treated for drug addiction, as well as to Maltese with an outstanding criminal record. In some cases, government authorities do not approve the extension of a cannabis permit until the applicant cancels the driver’s license. Therefore, patients are forced to make a choice: take cannabinoids or drive a car.

CannaVcell begins producing cannabinoids in a bioreactor

On September 26, Canadian hemp company CannaVcell announced the successful completion of a cannabinoid experiment in a bioreactor. The company used proprietary technology developed by BioHarvest.

Cannabinoids synthesize cannabis cells

CannaVcell employees grew hemp cells and trichomes in a small bioreactor, which produced five substances:

  1. cannabidiol acid (CBDC);
  2. tetrahydrocannabinol acid (THCA);
  3. cannabidiol (CBD);
  4. cannabinol (CBN);
  5. tetrahydrocannabinol ( THC ).

The development of CannaVcell allows you to get cannabinoids without the need to grow a plant. The advantage of BioHarvest technology is that it reduces the cost of producing substances and guarantees the high quality of the final product. CannaVcell co-founder Zaki Rakib said his firm managed to revolutionize the cannabis industry. The company’s specialists have tested the effectiveness of the bioreactor and are now going to establish the production of cannabinoids on an industrial scale.

Enterprises will produce two tons of hemp raw material per year

Bio Harvest and CannaVcell intend to complete the first phase of the launch of the commercial production of cannabinoids by the end of 2020. According to experts, the volume of products will be 2 tons per year. By 2021 another plant will be opened.

Employees of the enterprises became the first researchers who managed to grow stable trichomes and hemp cells in suspension. Until that moment, scientists conducted experiments only in solid media, which significantly limited the maximum possible volume of output. The suspension makes it easy to increase the production of cannabinoids and enter the industrial scale.

The co-founder of the hemp company MedReleaf Eitan Popper believes that the CannaVcell technology platform can be used for cheap production of substances contained in cannabis, selection, and synthesis of secondary metabolites (substances that are not involved in the growth, development or reproduction of the body). Bio Harvest technical director Jochi Hagai said the cannabinoids that make cells in the bioreactor are identical to the substances in marijuana. According to him, the quality of raw materials meets the standards for pharmaceutical products and consumer goods.

CannaVcell has received exclusive rights to use BioHarvest technology. The company plans to supply cannabinoids to the medical and recreational markets. The construction of a commercial bio-camera will require additional investments, so the company sells shares on the Canadian Stock Exchange. The value of the security (ticker CNVC) is 0.165 Canadian dollars.

US hemp sowing area exceeds 206,000 hectares

Hemp Gazette has published a report on American hemp breeding. According to journalists, the acreage of technical cannabis varieties in 2019 reached 206,390 hectares, which is 455% more than last year.

Hemp industry shows fast growth

In 2018, the Farm Bill was passed in the United States, lifting the ban on the cultivation of industrial hemp varieties. That is why in the country there is a rapid development of hemp breeding. However, the figures in the Hemp Gazette report reflect only officially registered farmland given for the cultivation of cannabis. In practice, the plant was planted on an area of ​​93,000 hectares, moreover, according to experts from VoteHemp, only 50,000 hectares will be harvested.

Vote Hemp President Eric Steenstra said: “In the United States, hemp sown areas increased significantly in 2019. An additional 13 states joined the hemp breeding program, so the land area has almost quadrupled.”

Four states remain overboard hemp market

This year, US authorities issued a license for the cultivation of cannabis to 16,877 farmers and researchers (476% more than in 2018). 2,880 enterprises received permission to process cannabis, which is 483% more than last year. Hemp breeding laws have not yet entered into force in the states of Idaho, South Dakota, Mississippi, and New Hampshire, so growing plants are illegal in these regions. In 46 states, cannabis technical strains are legalized.

South Dakota Governor Christy Noem is doing everything he can to stop attempts to legalize industrial cannabis. She stated that the ban would not be lifted until she heads the region. Given that Noem took over as governor at the end of 2018, South Dakota will be the last state to establish a regulated market for technical hemp.

By the start of the 2020 season, the U.S. Department of Agriculture plans to publish new regulations governing cannabis cultivation at the federal level. According to experts, the document will have a positive impact on hemp breeding, as this area of ​​agriculture is innovative. Farmers have not yet received the necessary experience to optimize the process of growing, harvesting and storing seeds, so state standards will help improve the technology.

Technical hemp in Russia

In May 2019, the Association of Cannabis growers predicted an increase in the area of ​​hemp crops in Russia to 15,000 hectares (in 2018, this figure was 7,900 hectares). However, according to the Russian Ministry of Agriculture, hemp was sown on an area of ​​10,200 hectares. The culture is cultivated in 17 regions and processed in six subjects: Mordovia, Adygea, Oryol, Penza, Novosibirsk and Kursk regions.

Government of Indian state of Manipur approves legalization of hemp

The Cabinet of Ministers of the Indian state of Manipur held a meeting on the legalization of hemp in the region. Officials approved the initiative but delayed the final decision until the next meeting.

Government plans to lift the ban on medical and technical cannabis only

Manipur ministers discussed the idea of ​​lifting the ban on the use of hemp in medicine and industry. They analyzed the experience of other Indian states that legalized the plant and weighed the pros and cons. Members of the Cabinet turned to citizens with a request to express their attitude to the reform of the law. The officials want to develop a regulatory framework taking into account the wishes of the residents of the region and will consider the draft at the next meeting.

According to Chief Minister Biren Singh, the legalization of hemp will contribute to the economic development of the state. In an interview, he stated the following: “Wild cannabis grows abundantly in Manipur. Oil with medicinal potential can be produced from plant materials.”

Manipuri hemp is appreciated in India, as it is of high quality, so Singh’s statement about the high potential of the plant is justified. Biren noted that the government will issue licenses for the cultivation of cannabis to limit the number of farmers. According to the minister, only the best startups will be allowed into the industry.

Cannabis is banned unfairly

The activist organization India Movement for Legalization (GLMI) claims the authorities have unjustly added hemp to the list of banned plants. Social activists substantiate their position with four main points:

  1. by law, a product can only be banned if it is deadly or poisonous (therefore tobacco is permitted);
  2. legal bhang, like cannabis, contains cannabinoids, so the ban is selective and meaningless;
  3. patients should have the right to consume, grow and acquire any plants with medicinal properties;
  4. the open sale of change has reduced the number of drug addicts among the Indians.

GLMI holds conferences, festivals, and meetings under the slogan: “Let’s educate society, cultivate the land, harvest, heal people and recreate the world.” Members of the organization draw the attention of the government to the fact that in the entire history of mankind, not a single death has been recorded due to an overdose of cannabinoids. In this regard, cannabis is much safer than alcohol, which, according to the WHO for 2018, causes every 20th death in the world. Artificial intelligence Speech By Crowd from IBM agrees with the position of activists and considers the ban on any drugs absurd due to the legal status of nicotine and alcohol.